With the U.S. Supreme Court beginning its October Term 2021 in the coming months, we conduct our 37th annual review of the performance of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in the Supreme Court during the past term.

On June 9, 2021, the Second Circuit experienced a devastating loss: Former Chief Judge Robert Katzmann lost his battle with pancreatic cancer. Judge Katzmann served on the Second Circuit since 1999. He was an intellectual giant and a staunch advocate of civic education. He was deeply committed to educating young people about America’s constitutional system and ensuring legal representation for immigrants. The late Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg—a close friend of Judge Katzmann’s—described him as possessing the “personal qualities important to sound judging: an inquiring mind, extraordinary diligence, patience, and a readiness to learn and listen.”