The Arizona Court of Appeals stated that the court had previously accepted special action jurisdiction in cases involving motions to compel mental-health examinations, but in an issue of first impression, now addressed whether non-expert witness testimony opens the door to a court-ordered examination for rebuttal purposes.

The state of Arizona accused Fernando Acosta of attacking and killing his girlfriend following a single-vehicle accident, according to the opinion. After his arrest, Acosta tested positive for methamphetamine, amphetamine, THC, the antidepressant medication midazolam, and the anti-psychotic medication haloperidol. Acosta was charged with first-degree murder, kidnapping, aggravated assault, possession of dangerous drugs, and possession of marijuana for sale and filed a notice of intent to seek the death penalty.