Federal appeals court Judge Jay Bybee, in 2019, penned a 71-page opinion for a divided panel lifting an injunction that had blocked the former Trump administration’s “public charge” rule for immigrants.

His work could’ve been done there, but Bybee, of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, went on to write an opinion separate from the majority’s entitled “concurring, perplexed and perturbed,” which urged “a feckless Congress” to address immigration issues.