The man convicted of killing nine people at Mother Emanuel AME Church in Charleston, South Carolina, tried to use autism as a defense. It didn’t work.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit upheld the convictions and death sentence for Dylann Roof Wednesday with a 149-page per curiam opinion from a panel of three visiting judges: Duane Benton of the Eighth Circuit, Kent Jordan of the Third Circuit, and Ronald Lee Gilman of the Sixth Circuit. Every member of the Fourth Circuit bench recused from the case.