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The following is a chronology of events leading to Monday’s 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decision declaring unconstitutional the University of Georgia’s use of racial preferences in admissions. March 1997: Attorney A. Leroy “Lee” Parks Jr. files suit in U.S. District Court in Savannah, Ga., on behalf of 11 white and black plaintiffs. The suit charges that the University of Georgia applies unconstitutional racial preferences in admissions, and that Georgia’s historically black colleges, Fort Valley State, Albany State and Savannah State, unconstitutionally segregate black students. Wooden v. Board of Regents, 247 F.3d 1262 (11th Cir. 2001). March 1999: Edenfield dismisses claims brought by black plaintiffs in Wooden, ruling that the four plaintiffs lacked standing. That portion of the complaint was brought not on behalf of students, but of educators and school administrators concerned about disparities in quality between Georgia’s historically black colleges and the state’s other universities. July 1999: Edenfield tosses out the remaining plaintiffs’ claims in Wooden, saying that the university did not rely on race as a factor in denying their applications for admission. However, Edenfield also warns UGA that its admissions policies do not meet constitutional standards. August 1999: Parks files suit on behalf of Jennifer L. Johnson, who was denied admission in 1999. Johnson, a white woman, claims the school discriminated against her because of her race and sex. The school offers Johnson admission to its freshman class a few days after the suit is filed, but she does not drop her suit. A week later, the school stops its policy of using gender as a factor in admissions decisions. September 1999: Parks files suit on behalf of Aimee Bogrow and Molly Ann Beckenhauer, two other white women who claimed UGA’s admissions policy discriminated against them on the basis of their race and sex. Their suit later would be joined with Johnson’s. October 1999: Johnson, Bogrow and Beckenhauer ask Edenfield to grant an injunction barring UGA from considering race in its admissions process. April 2000: The 11th Circuit directs Edenfield to reconsider his ruling in Wooden, which dismissed some plaintiffs’ claims because their rejections had not been based on race, and which dismissed complaints from black educators about segregation at historically black colleges in Georgia. May 2000: Parks sues on behalf of Virginia Noble and Robert Homlar, two white applicants to the University of Georgia School of Law, who claim they were denied admission on the basis of their race. June 2000: Edenfield says his order in Wooden stands. July 2000: Edenfield grants summary judgment to Bogrow, Johnson and Beckenhauer, and declares that UGA’s use of race in its admissions policy violates constitutional principles. Johnson v. Board of Regents of the University of Georgia, 106 F. Sup. 2d 1362 (2000). Edenfield holds that Justice Powell’s opinion in Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978), is not binding precedent, and declares UGA’s admissions policy unconstitutional. The judge orders the university to grant the women admission and damages. However, he does not grant the plaintiffs’ request for an injunction barring the use of race in admissions. August 2000: The university appeals Edenfield’s order in Johnson, but announces that in the meantime it voluntarily will suspend its practice of using race as a factor in undergraduate admissions. February 2001: UGA agrees to admit Homlar to the School of Law and to pay him $15,000 to settle his suit against the university. It offers Noble, who does not attend UGA, $20,000. The settlement did not require the school to change its admissions policies, and representatives for the university dispute whether Homlar was admitted as a full student or a visiting student, who would not receive his degree from UGA School of Law on completing his last year. Noble v. Georgia Board of Regents, No. 4:00-cv-133 (S.D. Ga. Feb. 5, 2001). April 2001: The 11th Circuit affirms Edenfield’s decision in Wooden to dismiss the complaints of black plaintiffs about historically black colleges, and the discrimination complaints of applicants denied admission to UGA on a basis other than race. However, the court reinstates the claims of Craig Green, one of the plaintiffs, who was denied admission to UGA in March 1997. Aug. 27, 2001: An 11th Circuit panel affirms Edenfield’s order granting summary judgment to Bogrow, Beckenhauer and Johnson. It also declares that the University of Georgia’s policy of granting preferential treatment to minority applicants in the admissions process is unconstitutional. This chronology was culled from the archives of the Daily Report and The Atlanta Journal-Constitution , and from interviews with the lawyers.

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