The Supreme Court has amended the 14th Amendment. In Saenz v. Roe, 119 S. Ct. 1518 (1999), a seven-member majority revived the privileges and immunities clause after 130 years of judicial desuetude.

Ratified in 1868, the 14th Amendment is the most significant of all the amendments for protecting civil rights and liberties. The constitutional couplets “due process” and “equal protection” have generated volumes of annotations limning state action, procedural due process, substantive due process, fundamental rights, incorporation of the Bill of Rights, suspect classifications, privacy, etc.

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