Two federal appeals judges and the chair of the Board of Immigration Appeal painted a bleak picture on Sunday of a growing crisis in the adjudication of immigration cases at the administrative and appeals levels.

Speaking at a panel discussion before an audience at the American Bar Association’s annual meeting in New York City, 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Robert Katzmann and 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals Judge M. Margaret McKeown described a crisis fueled by increased enforcement and detention, bad or nonexistent lawyering for immigrants facing deportation, as well as overwhelmed immigration judges and appeal judges. “It’s like a tsunami,” McKeown said.