President Joe Biden had the proper authority to require federal contractors working on or in connection with federal government projects to be vaccinated against COVID-19, a three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruled April 19.

The decision marks a split from three other circuits on the issue of whether the major questions doctrine, which requires that Congress speak clearly if it wishes to assign to an agency decision of vast economic and political significance, applies to the president.