As the national conversation around gender discrimination sparks tougher fair pay laws in states such as California, New York and New Jersey, large law firms have responded with a proliferation of pay equity practices to help clients navigate the changing landscape.

National labor and employment firms Littler Mendelson and Fisher & Phillips were at the vanguard, creating freestanding pay equity practices around 2016 that offer pay gap audits and compliance counseling as well as litigation defense.