In the matter of James v. City of Boise, Idaho, 136 S.Ct. 685 (2016), the U.S. Supreme Court has clarified for all state courts, including Pennsylvania, who or what has the ultimate authority, and indeed the jurisdiction, to interpret and apply federal law.

The plaintiff in the James matter filed a claim under 42 U.S.C. Section 1983 against the city of Boise, Idaho, and some of its police officers after she was bitten by one of their police dogs while they were responding to a burglary call.

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