Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) streamlines and clarifies contract law as it applies to goods (UCC Section 2-102). It preemptively, systematically and comprehensively addresses contract law difficulties by disclosing default rules (gap fillers) that supply necessary contract terms where merchants have not done so effectively. E-commerce has blurred the definition of merchant allowing for the strategic use of the UCC.

UCC Section 2-102 provides that the term “sales” applies to all “transactions in goods.” Since no exception was made for internet sales, every state in the United States has adopted similar forms of the UCC, so the UCC is applicable to virtually all internet goods transactions.