As of June 30, 2021, almost 155 million Americans, 46.7% of the population, had been fully vaccinated against COVID-19. The vast majority of those individuals are over age 18, and more than 57% of adults over age 18 in the United States have been vaccinated. Rates of infection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 have all plummeted among the vaccinated population.

However, more than 20% of Americans surveyed indicate that they do not plan to get vaccinated. While there are regional differences in vaccine reluctance, it is safe to say that many or most workforces will include some individuals who, left to their own devices, will choose not to be vaccinated. This sizable percentage of individuals who remain unvaccinated raises the question of whether employers can, if they wish, require employees to be vaccinated as a condition of employment.