Jeh Johnson, former secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, on Monday assessed the potentially serious impact of artificial intelligence on the 2024 election—and, indeed, on democracy itself.

“We live right now in a climate where we are highly vulnerable to some form of artificial intelligence attack on our democracy, given the advent of AI and given the fragile nature of our democracy,” Johnson told attendees of the New York City Bar Association’s day-long Artificial Intelligence Institute.