A divided U.S. Supreme Court ruled Friday that juries—not judges—must determine whether a defendant has committed felonies on three separate occasions and thereby qualifies for a longer sentence as an armed career criminal under federal law.

In its 6-3 decision, the high court held that the three separate occasions inquiry under the Armed Career Criminal Act is a question of fact to be determine by a jury and not of law, which is the province of the judge. The jury must make this finding unanimously and beyond a reasonable doubt to be in compliance with the criminal defendant’s Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights to due process and a jury trial, respectively, the court added.