In an increasingly connected, globalized corporate landscape, class action lawsuits—from the Volkswagen “Dieselgate” emission scandal to environmental claims against oil giants or data privacy litigation against Big Tech—increasingly take on cross-border dimensions. However, the judicial landscape in many parts of the world has not kept up pace when it comes to group litigation mechanisms.

“There are some trends toward more availability of mass torts and class actions, but it’s pretty confusing, and there’s a lot of unanswered questions in many countries,” said Washington-based Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom partner John Beisner. The rules vary significantly from country to country, and in many places rules are not yet fully developed.