Procedural issues posed by the Republican National Committee’s challenge to a subpoena issued by the House Jan. 6 select committee appeared to perplex even the judge presiding over the case during a court hearing Friday.

The confusion related to how the case would proceed if U.S. District Judge Timothy Kelly in Washington, D.C., agreed with House lawyers that legal protections on legislative activities prevented him from ruling on the dispute. Kelly said he could not find a single similar case where those protections did not “rob the court of jurisdiction.”