In a lengthy and dense U.S. Supreme Court decision Thursday, Justices Elena Kagan and Brett Kavanaugh engaged in a rare wrangle in footnotes over how their colleagues aligned in the criminal case.

Kagan wrote a plurality opinion that was joined by her liberal colleagues Justices Stephen Breyer and Sonia Sotomayor and her colleague on the right, Justice Neil Gorsuch. Justice Clarence Thomas concurred in the judgment. The final vote: 5-4.