The ransomware attack on a major East Coast pipeline May 7 triggered fuel shortages and increased retail gasoline prices in many areas of the country. This led to claims of price gouging, prompting the governors of Georgia, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina to declare states of emergency and trigger prohibitions on price gouging for gasoline.

The crisis illustrates what state governments can do in response to price shocks, and also teaches how companies should address pricing issues during emergencies.