In February 1996, world chess champion Garry Kasparov took on an IBM supercomputer known as Deep Blue. While Kasparov won the match, Deep Blue did win one of the games, marking the first time that a computer had defeated a world champion under tournament conditions.

Following this match, Kasparov wrote an article in TIME and concluded in his article: “Although I think I did see some signs of intelligence, it’s a weird kind, an inefficient, inflexible kind that makes me think I have a few years left.” One year later, in 1997, an upgraded Deep Blue won its rematch against Kasparov.