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Did you know that a product does not have to travel across the U.S. border to be considered an export? In fact, an export need not involve a product at all. Under the rules governing deemed exports, merely exposing a non-U.S. citizen to information about export-controlled technology, even on U.S. soil, may be treated as an export. Such a disclosure of information, if made without a proper license, is potentially a violation of federal law that could result in harsh penalties. It is therefore vital that universities researching, or utilizing, export-controlled technology thoroughly understand this rule and how the exemption for “fundamental research” may — or may not — apply.