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Many companies and institutions have boilers for heat or emergency and auxiliary power and have not been subject to much regulation other than a random state or county permit. That blissful state is now over. With the adoption of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boiler Area Sources (Area Source Boiler MACT), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) now regulates many of these small power plants. While the requirements are far less onerous than for large electrical generating units, they still require compliance demonstrations, control efforts and time-consuming paperwork to be filed with the EPA. Since many of these boilers are located at schools, hospitals and smaller companies which tend to lack large environmental staff to monitor these requirements, the possibility of enforcement actions and fines is significant.