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In 2005, New York City passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act amendments to the New York City Human Rights Law (NYCHRL). Given the language and legislative history of these amendments, many courts have since recognized that the burden on an employee to establish discrimination under the NYCHRL is significantly more lenient than under both federal and state law. In Williams v. New York City Housing Authority, for example, the NYCHRL was interpreted to require an independent and broader construction than its federal and state counterparts, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the New York State Human Rights Law (NYSHRL).