Lawmakers and antitrust enforcers fear that AI price-setting tools are supercharging tacit collusion among companies—yet another thorny competition problem posed by rapid advances in artificial intelligence that outmoded antitrust laws aren’t equipped to handle.

Price-fixing arrangements are nothing new in antitrust law, but AI’s ability to learn how to maximize profits by colluding—absent any human involvement—adds a new wrinkle to the problem because it allows competitors to coordinate prices even without communicating directly.