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� 1 Presently before this Court are the cross appeals of Richard Hall and Sharon Newhart, individually and as executors of the Estate of Carol B. Hall (“Plaintiffs”), Donald Jackson, M.D., and Tyler Memorial Hospital (the “Hospital”) from the November 22, 2000 judgment entered following a jury verdict in favor of Plaintiffs. *fn1 We affirm.

� 2 The unfortunate facts of this case are as follows: On December 17, 1991, while working as a security guard at the Proctor & Gamble Paper Products Company plant in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania, Carol B. Hall slipped and fell on a patch of ice outside the plant. She experienced pain in her chest, neck, and arms, and therefore drove herself to Tyler Memorial Hospital’s emergency room for examination. The Hospital had a written policy that applied to emergency room patients who either had no family physician, or whose family physician did not have staff privileges at the Hospital. In such cases, the Hospital assigned a physician from its rotating “daytime on-call list.” Following treatment, the patient’s emergency room records were then sent to the assigned physician.

� 3 Hall’s family physician, Raymond L. Bennett, M.D., did not have privileges at the Hospital. The Hospital accordingly assigned Dr. Clarence Mast as her physician, but Dr. Mast never examined Hall. While at the Hospital, Hall was examined by Dr. Jackson, the emergency room physician, who ordered x-rays to determine whether Hall had fractured any bones in her arms or torso. Although the x-ray revealed no bone fractures, it did reveal a one-centimeter “coin” lesion on one of Hall’s lungs. The radiologist notified Dr. Jackson of his finding, and Dr. Jackson’s emergency room notes indicate that he was aware of the lesion. Dr. Jackson testified that while he did not specifically remember informing Hall of her x-ray results, it was his practice to notify patients of their x-ray results, and, therefore, he assumed that he had done so in this case. However, Hall testified that neither Dr. Jackson nor anyone else at the Hospital advised her of the lesion. *fn2 Hall was not admitted to the Hospital, but was discharged from the emergency room and sent back to work with written instructions to follow up with her family physician if necessary. Pursuant to the Hospital’s policy, Hall’s emergency room records were then forwarded to Dr. Mast. *fn3

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