Amgen Inc., the world’s largest biotech company, sued units of Roche Holding AG in federal court in Boston, alleging patent infringement of its popular anemia treatment.

The lawsuit, filed late Tuesday, claims the Roche units are planning to market one or more anemia treatments that infringe on six patents protecting Epogen, a drug that replicates the kidney hormone erythropoietin, which increases the amount of red blood cells.