Lawyers could lose their licenses for a year for repeatedly filing frivolous lawsuits under a bill headed for passage in the House as part of the Republicans’ drive to crack down on what they consider costly abuses of the legal system.

Supporters say such suits, deemed baseless by a judge for flimsy facts or faulty interpretations of the law, are a waste of court time and mostly a bonanza for lawyers rather than a chance to recoup legitimate damages for their clients.