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LOCAL HEROES University of California $261.5 Million The University of California system has 10 campuses, three national laboratories, and a world-class reputation. When it comes to patent work, the university stays local. “We try to give the work to California firms,” says Suzanne Quick, assistant director of the university’s Office of Technology. Judging by recent patent filings, some of the university’s favorite firms include San Francisco’s Townsend and Townsend and Crew, and Morrison & Foerster; and Palo Alto, Calif., firms Gray Cary Ware & Freidenrich and Cooley Godward. The school often selects lawyers based on their knowledge of a particular technology. Once retained, a firm has cradle-to-the-grave responsibility for an invention and its patents, Quick says. The school’s research has yielded important new pharmaceutical products, surgical procedures, and agricultural goods. Some big moneymakers include a hepatitis B vaccine, a breeding method for growing a particularly tasty kind of strawberry, and a method of treating aneurysms. The University of California’s human growth hormone research ensnarled the school in high-priced litigation. In 1990 the school sued Genentech Inc. of South San Francisco, Calif., alleging that the biotech company took the technology and raw material used to make human growth hormones. When the case settled in 1999, the university came home with a $200 million settlement. AXEL ON ITS BACK Columbia University $138.6 Million Like candy, caffeine and nicotine, patents can become habit-forming. For years Columbia University’s Axel patent was the school’s biggest moneymaker. The patent has generated about $1 billion in revenue to the university. Columbia biochemist Richard Axel developed a process to manufacture complex proteins. The process yielded a number of important drugs, including erythropoetin, which stimulates production of red-blood cells. But the patent expired last year. What’s next for Columbia? Francis Carrigan, the school’s director of technology commercialization for engineering, computer and physical science, says the next big things are MPEG and the glaucoma drug Xalatan. MPEG is a popular data compression format used by DVD players. Pharmacia Corp. of Peapack, N.J., has licensed Xalatan, which is used to treat glaucoma. In November, former student Frederic A. Stern sued Columbia in federal court in New York, saying his name had been left off the glaucoma patent and that he made a major contribution to the research on which the patent was based. Carrigan says that technology licensing falls into three categories — health services, medical devices, and the engineering, computer and physical science division she heads. Each division has its own set of outside patent counsel, but ultimately, all report to the university general counsel, Libby Keefer. “If we want to add somebody and need a new expertise, we go to Libby and say this is what I need,” Carrigan says. Principal outside patent counsel include Houston’s Baker Botts and New York’s Cooper & Dunham and Cowan, Liebowitz & Latman. BIG SALE Dartmouth College $68.4 Million Dartmouth’s licensing bonanza came from the liquidation of stock in a spin-off company, Medarex Inc. of Princeton, N.J. The company, which develops cancer-fighting antibodies, licensed Dartmouth’s antibody research technology in 1992 in return for 450,000 shares of Medarex stock. Is Dartmouth’s appearance in the top ten a one-time event? Maybe not. Alla Kan, director of the technology transfer office, says her school is developing a novel technology used for de-icing airplanes that could be as lucrative as the antibody patents. The school has already licensed the technology to BF Goodrich Co. for marine and aerospace applications. Kan says Dartmouth has three primary IP firms. Licata & Tyree of Marlton, N.J., gets most of the biotech work. The Boulder, Colo., office of Kansas City, Mo.’s Lathrop & Gage does engineering work, while Boston’s Lahive & Cockfield serves a more general role. While firms like to boast of their university clients, they don’t necessarily cut their rates. Says Kan, “I don’t notice much of a discount.” TREE OF REVENUE Florida State University $67.5 Million Florida State University’s major moneymaking technology grows on trees but has nothing to do with citrus fruit. The school’s cash cow is a drug used to treat breast and ovarian cancers that is derived from the Pacific yew tree. Florida State licenses the drug to New York’s Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, which markets it under the name Taxol. The drug accounts for at least 95 percent of the university’s cash flow from technology licensing. The school also spun off Taxlog Inc. of Fairfield, N.J., to find other commercial uses for this drug-production technology. In July 2000, Taxlog formed a partnership with Wyeth Ayerst Laboratories to develop, market and commercialize any new drugs. Who says cold calls don’t work? That’s how St. Louis’ Senniger, Powers, Leavitte & Roedel won the assignment writing the Taxol patents. Senniger Powers, Missouri’s largest IP firm, happened to call when the first Taxol patent application needed immediate attention, according to John Fraser, director of the office of technology transfer. The firm has expertise in genetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnostic products — just what the client was looking for. TRADEMARKS TOO Stanford University $34.6 Million San Francisco’s Townsend and Townsend and Crew prosecuted Stanford University’s first cash cow — the Cohen-Boyer patent that enabled genetic cloning. When that patent expired in 1997, Stanford had licensed it to more than 400 licensees and collected more than $200 million in revenue from it. Today Townsend and Townsend still has a healthy hunk of Stanford’s patent work. The firm has written more than 150 Stanford patents since 1996. Stanford spreads its patent work around to more than 30 firms. Other prominent IP players include San Francisco’s Morrison & Foerster and Palo Alto’s Cooley Godward. These days the university’s biggest patent punch comes from a sound-amplification technology developed at the Stanford Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics. Sondius-XG is protected not just with patents but registered trademarks as well. The university has registered the mark “Sutech,” for Stanford University Technology. And the school even offers licensees the option of posting the Sutech banner on their Web sites. BEANTOWN BOUND Massachusetts Institute of Technology $30.2 Million MIT has a long history of giving birth to technology companies but a short list of IP firms. Boston’s Testa, Hurwitz & Thibeault; Wolf, Greenfield & Sacks; and Hamilton, Brook, Smith & Reynolds get a significant amount of the university’s work. The school’s technology transfer office has spun off more than 1,000 companies since its founding in 1940, according to a 1997 study published by BankBoston, now FleetBoston Financial Corp. One of the school’s stellar successes was the RSA algorithm, the basis for many of the methods of protecting data on the Internet and the subject of intense litigation in the 1990s. The creators of the algorithm founded a company, RSA Data Security Inc., that eventually achieved great commercial success. Another winner is a heart-imaging agent licensed to Dupont Pharmaceutical Co. and sold under the name Miraluma. MIT engineering professor Anant Agarwal developed technology used in making programmable computer chips.

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