A review of the cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court
during the 2004-2005 term discloses no overriding theme from the
perspective of the business community.
By Adam H.
Charnes and Laura A. Greer|August 03, 2005 at 12:00 AM|The original version of this story was published on National Law Journal
Thank you for sharing!
Your article was successfully shared with the contacts you provided.
A review of the cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court during the 2004-2005 term discloses no overriding theme from the perspective of the business community. The court’s controversial interpretation of the public-use clause in a high-profile takings case represents good news for big businesses, which often benefit from economic development projects, though not for the small enterprises that sometimes are shunted out of the way in the process. The business community dodged a proverbial bullet when the court overturned Arthur Andersen LLP’s conviction for its destruction of Enron-related documents and rejected a 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decision that called into question the legality of document-retention policies that are nearly ubiquitous in large corporations. But-in perhaps the most significant case for business decided this term-the court narrowly interpreted a federal statute’s pre-emption clause, increasing businesses’ exposure to a patchwork of state laws. Kelo v. City of New London, 125 S. Ct. 2655 (2005), arose when New London, Conn., sought to condemn the plaintiffs’ property, which was not located in a blighted neighborhood, for use in an economic development project that included a hotel and conference center, marinas, retail stores and restaurants, and research and development office space. The nature of the project meant that the public would be denied access to much of the condemned property. Owners of the condemned land sued, claiming that the condemnation was not for “public use” under the Fifth Amendment’s takings clause and was therefore unconstitutional. In an opinion by Justice John Paul Stevens that has proved unpopular with the general public, the court held, by a 5-4 vote, that New London’s economic development plan was rationally related to a conceivable public purpose and thus satisfied the Fifth Amendment’s public- use requirement. The court rejected the property owners’ arguments that economic development does not qualify as a public use and that the Fifth Amendment “require[s] a reasonable certainty that the expected public benefits will accrue.” The court concluded that the existence of a public purpose ended the inquiry; the “wisdom of the takings,” the “amount and character of the land to be taken” and the “need for a particular tract to complete the integrated plan” are not subject to review in federal court. While he joined Stevens’ opinion, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy authored a concurring opinion that narrowed the court’s categorical holding. In his view, “transfers intended to confer benefits on particular, favored private entities, and with only incidental or pretextual public benefits, are forbidden by the Public Use Clause.” In a discussion that likely will be viewed as controlling by lower courts, Kennedy instructed that courts should treat “a plausible accusation of impermissible favoritism to private parties” as “serious” and engage in a degree of factual review that typically is not required in traditional rational-basis review. The principal dissent by Justice Sandra Day O’Connor accused the court of turning the public-use requirement into “hortatory fluff.” The four dissenters would permit governments to transfer condemned property to private parties in only two circumstances: when (as with common carriers) the property is to be opened to the public’s use, and when the condemnation is necessary to eliminate an existing use of the property that “inflict[s] affirmative harm on society.” Based on this standard, the dissenters concluded that economic development takings are flatly unconstitutional. ‘Arthur Andersen’ decision
SPECIAL EDITION Supreme Court Review ARTICLES
This content has been archived. It is available exclusively through our partner LexisNexis®.
To view this content, please continue to Lexis Advance®.
LexisNexis® is now the exclusive third party online distributor of the broad collection of current and archived versions of ALM's legal news publications. LexisNexis® customers will be able to access and use ALM's content by subscribing to the LexisNexis® services via Lexis Advance®. This includes content from the National Law Journal®, The American Lawyer®, Law Technology News®, The New York Law Journal® and Corporate Counsel®, as well as ALM's other newspapers, directories, legal treatises, published and unpublished court opinions, and other sources of legal information.
ALM's content plays a significant role in your work and research, and now through this alliance LexisNexis® will bring you access to an even more comprehensive collection of legal content.
Reduce the amount of data your legal team needs to review by upwards of 80% with predictive coding. This white paper explains how it works, and ways to tactically use predictive coding in litigation or investigation.
Reduce the amount of data you need to review by upwards of 80% with predictive coding. This white paper explains how it works, and ways to tactically use predictive coding in litigation or investigation.
With this subscription you will receive unlimited access to high quality, online, on-demand premium content from well-respected faculty in the legal industry. This is perfect for attorneys licensed in multiple jurisdictions or for attorneys that have fulfilled their CLE requirement but need to access resourceful information for their practice areas.
Our Team Account subscription service is for legal teams of four or more attorneys. Each attorney is granted unlimited access to high quality, on-demand premium content from well-respected faculty in the legal industry along with administrative access to easily manage CLE for the entire team.
Gain access to some of the most knowledgeable and experienced attorneys with our 2 bundle options! Our Compliance bundles are curated by CLE Counselors and include current legal topics and challenges within the industry. Our second option allows you to build your bundle and strategically select the content that pertains to your needs. Both options are priced the same.
Dynamically explore and compare data on law firms, companies, individual lawyers, and industry trends.
Exclusive Depth and Reach.
Legal Compass includes access to our exclusive industry reports, combining the unmatched expertise of our analyst team with ALM’s deep bench of proprietary information to provide insights that can’t be found anywhere else.
Big Pictures and Fine Details
Legal Compass delivers you the full scope of information, from the rankings of the Am Law 200 and NLJ 500 to intricate details and comparisons of firms’ financials, staffing, clients, news and events.
As part of your digital membership, you can sign up for an unlimited number of a wide range of complimentary newsletters.
Visit your My Account page to make your selections. Get the timely legal news and critical analysis you cannot afford to miss.
Tailored just for you. In your inbox. Every day.