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•� Adarand Constructors Inc. v. Pena (1995) — Allowed to go forward a case alleging that an affirmative action program in the federal Small Business Act violates the equal protection guarantee. • American Insurance Association v. Garamendi (2003) — Overturned a California law seeking to force insurance companies to yield information on Holocaust survivors, because the law interferes with the president’s foreign policy powers. • Bartnicki v. Vopper (2001) — Ruled that the First Amendment protects the disclosure of speech that was illegally intercepted. • BMW of North America Inc. v. Gore (1996) — Ruled that the 14th Amendment’s substantive due process guarantee is violated when excessive punitive damages are over 500 times greater than compensatory damages. • Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) — Upheld a Georgia anti-sodomy law, finding that the Constitution does not guarantee a right to gay sex. • Bush v. Gore (2000) — Ruled that a recount the Florida Supreme Court had ordered of ballots cast in the 2000 presidential election could not proceed. • Demore v. Kim (2003) — Held that the government may hold foreigners awaiting deportation proceedings. • Federal Election Commission v. Beaumont (2003) — Found that the First Amendment allows a ban prohibiting nonprofit corporations from making direct contributions to federal candidates. • Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) — Upheld an affirmative action admissions plan at the University of Michigan Law School, on the basis that the 14th Amendment permits “diversity,” so long as admissions decisions are made on an individualized basis. • Lawrence v. Texas (2003) — Overturned a Texas law that banned gay sex, saying it violates 14th Amendment due process rights. • McConnell v. Federal Election Commission — Case on the constitutionality of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act will be argued Sept. 8. • National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley (1998) — Held that the First Amendment allows the NEA to consider decency standards when making grants. • Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs (2003) — Ruled that the federal Family and Medical Leave Act applies to state employees, and that Congress correctly exercised its power to enact the law under the 14th Amendment. • Nike v. Kasky (2003) — Dismissed the review of a First Amendment challenge, allowing a suit to proceed against Nike for violating a California law prohibiting unfair trade practices. • Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America v. Walsh (2003) — Permitted Maine’s efforts to secure discounts for drugs for its residents, rejecting claims that the program interferes with the federal Medicaid program. • Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) — Upheld a woman’s right to have an abortion, but allowed state regulation that does not impose an “undue burden” on a woman’s right to choose. • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) — Held unconstitutional an affirmative action program at the University of California at Davis, but also held that race can be considered as a “plus” factor in admissions. • Scheidler v. National Organization for Women (2003) — Held that protesters at abortion clinics did not engage in extortion or violate the federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. • Shaw v. Reno (1993) — Sustained a claim that a North Carolina congressional district designed to have a majority of racial minority voters violates equal protection rights. • State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. v. Campbell (2003) — Reined in excessive punitive damages award on due process grounds, holding that, usually, punitive damages may not exceed compensatory damages by more than single-digit ratios. • United States v. American Library Association (2003) — Ruled that a law requiring libraries to filter Internet connections for pornography in order to receive federal funds does not violate patrons’ First Amendment rights. • Virginia v. Hicks (2003) — Ruled that a state-owned housing development in Virginia can enforce laws against trespassing without violating the First Amendment.

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