To file bankruptcy in the U.S., a debtor must reside in, have a domicile or a place of business in, or have property in the United States. 11 U.S.C. §109(a). In cross border Chapter 15 cases, courts have considered if a foreign debtor must satisfy that jurisdictional test.

In 2013, the Second Circuit said the test must be satisfied. See, Drawbridge Special Opportunities Fund LP v. Barnet (In re Barnet), 737 F.3d 238 (2d Cir. 2013). But in April, the Eleventh Circuit did not apply section 109(a) based on case precedent in the Circuit. See, Al Zawawi v. Diss (In re Al Zawawi), No. 22-110224, 2024 U.S. App. LEXIS 7955 (11th Cir. Apr. 3, 2024).