During the decade Margrethe Vestager oversaw the EU’s powerful Directorate-General for Competition, the agency penalized Apple, Google, and other tech companies with multiple billion-euro fines and proposed bold new antitrust enforcement guidelines that would allow the regulator to penalize a wider range of anti-competitive behavior.

The Directorate-General also adopted the landmark Digital Markets Act, an antitrust law tailormade for Big Tech, and the Foreign Subsidies Regulation, which broke ground for applying the EU’s state aid regime to companies that benefited from foreign subsidies.