Judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit exchanged sharp barbs in a fractured en banc ruling over whether a charter school’s skirts-only dress code for girls violates the U.S. Constitution.

The full court sided with students who claimed the North Carolina-based Charter Day School is a state actor, and therefore its dress policy meant to promote chivalry violates the Equal Protections Clause. It also held the students can pursue claims under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 against the school and the for-profit management company that runs it, since they receive federal funding.