The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit said Friday that Andy Warhol did not make “fair use” of a photographer’s copyrighted image of the iconic musician Prince, in a ruling that fine-tuned the court’s precedent relating to transformative works and cautioned trial judges to refrain from the role of art critic.

The ruling, from a three-judge panel of the Manhattan-based appeals court, reversed a trial court decision in finding that Warhol’s famous series of 16 silkscreen works had infringed Lynn Goldsmith’s copyright for her 1981 photograph portraying Prince in black and white.