The U.S. Supreme Court’s June 29 decision in Seila Law v. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau was a major test of the separation of powers, with ramifications for presidents—and businesses—for years to come.

By a 5-4 vote, the court ruled that the president could fire the lone director of the bureau without cause. Restrictions on that power imposed by Congress violated the Constitution, the court said, because it impinged on the president’s broad executive power under Article II of the Constitution.